Paper by Sei Yon Sohn, Lauren Krasnoff, Philippa Rees, Nicola J. Kalk and Ben Carter
Conclusions: Using a validated instrument, 39% young adults reported smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was associated with poor sleep, independent of duration of usage, indicating that length of time should not be used as a proxy for harmful usage.
Peter Limbrick writes:
I wonder if this important research will raise concern amongst teachers and parents and amongst teenagers themselves? It might be that it is an addiction many of us are aware of but find more or less inevitable or acceptable. It is such a strong and socially-reinforced addiction that trying to remedy it would be traumatic in families and schools. Also, many of the adults who should step in to help are addicts themselves. Governments that could help are not doing so. Teenagers are being left to sink or swim as best they can.